The five hepatitis viruses – A, B, C, D and E – are distinct; they can have different modes of transmission, affect different populations, and result in different health outcomes.
- Hepatitis A is primarily spread when someone ingests the virus from contact with food, drinks, or objects contaminated by feces from an infected person or has close personal contact with someone who is infected. Hepatitis A does not cause chronic liver disease and is rarely fatal, but it can cause serious symptoms. Hepatitis A can be prevented through improved sanitation, food safety, and vaccination.
- Hepatitis B is often spread during birth from an infected mother to her baby. Infection can also occur through contact with blood and other body fluids through injection drug use, unsterile medical equipment, and sexual contact. Hepatitis B is most common in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, but is also high in the Amazon region of South America, the southern parts of eastern and central Europe, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. The hepatitis B virus can cause both acute and chronic infection, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, chronic illness. If infected at birth or during early childhood, people are more likely to develop a chronic infection, which can lead to liver cirrhosis or even liver cancer. Getting the hepatitis B vaccine is the most effective way to prevent hepatitis B. WHO recommends that all infants receive the hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible after birth, followed by 2-3 additional doses. In many parts of the world, widespread infant vaccination programs have led to dramatic declines of new hepatitis B cases.
- Hepatitis C is spread through contact with blood of an infected person. Infection can occur through injection drug use and unsafe medical injections and other medical procedures. Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C is also possible. Hepatitis C can cause both acute and chronic infections, but most people who get infected develop a chronic infection. A significant number of those who are chronically infected will develop liver cirrhosis or liver cancer. With new treatments, over 90% of people with hepatitis C can be cured within 2-3 months, reducing the risk of death from liver cancer and cirrhosis. The first step for people living with hepatitis C to benefit from treatments is to get tested and linked to care. There is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C but research in this area is ongoing.
- Hepatitis D is passed through contact with infected blood. Hepatitis D only occurs in people who are already infected with the hepatitis B virus. People who are not already infected with hepatitis B can prevent hepatitis D by getting vaccinated against hepatitis B.
- Hepatitis E is spread mainly through contaminated drinking water. Hepatitis E usually clears in 4-6 weeks so there is no specific treatment. However, pregnant women infected with hepatitis E are at considerable risk of mortality from this infection. Hepatitis E is found worldwide, but the number of infections is highest in East and South Asia. Improved sanitation and food safety can help prevent new cases of hepatitis E. A vaccine to prevent hepatitis E has been developed and is licensed in China, but is not yet available elsewhere.
The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays can damage your skin in as little as 15 minutes. Follow these recommendations to help protect yourself and your family.
You can reduce your risk of skin damage and skin cancer by seeking shade under an umbrella, tree, or other shelter before you need relief from the sun. Your best bet to protect your skin is to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing when you’re outside—even when you’re in the shade.
When possible, long-sleeved shirts and long pants and skirts can provide protection from UV rays. Clothes made from tightly woven fabric offer the best protection. A wet T-shirt offers much less UV protection than a dry one, and darker colors may offer more protection than lighter colors. Some clothing certified under international standards comes with information on its ultraviolet protection factor.
If wearing this type of clothing isn’t practical, at least try to wear a T-shirt or a beach cover-up. Keep in mind that a typical T-shirt has an SPF rating lower than 15, so use other types of protection as well.
For the most protection, wear a hat with a brim all the way around that shades your face, ears, and the back of your neck. A tightly woven fabric, such as canvas, works best to protect your skin from UV rays. Avoid straw hats with holes that let sunlight through. A darker hat may offer more UV protection.
If you wear a baseball cap, you should also protect your ears and the back of your neck by wearing clothing that covers those areas, using a broad spectrum sunscreen with at least SPF 15, or by staying in the shade.
Sunglasses protect your eyes from UV rays and reduce the risk of cataracts. They also protect the tender skin around your eyes from sun exposure.
Sunglasses that block both UVA and UVB rays offer the best protection. Most sunglasses sold in the United States, regardless of cost, meet this standard. Wrap-around sunglasses work best because they block UV rays from sneaking in from the side.
Put on broad spectrum sunscreen with at least SPF 15 before you go outside, even on slightly cloudy or cool days. Don’t forget to put a thick layer on all parts of exposed skin. Get help for hard-to-reach places like your back. And remember, sunscreen works best when combined with other options to prevent UV damage.
How sunscreen works. Most sunscreen products work by absorbing, reflecting, or scattering sunlight. They contain chemicals that interact with the skin to protect it from UV rays. All products do not have the same ingredients; if your skin reacts badly to one product, try another one or call a doctor.
SPF. Sunscreens are assigned a sun protection factor (SPF) number that rates their effectiveness in blocking UV rays. Higher numbers indicate more protection. You should use a broad spectrum sunscreen with at least SPF 15.
Reapplication. Sunscreen wears off. Put it on again if you stay out in the sun for more than two hours and after swimming, sweating, or toweling off.
Expiration date. Check the sunscreen’s expiration date. Sunscreen without an expiration date has a shelf life of no more than three years, but its shelf life is shorter if it has been exposed to high temperatures.
Cosmetics. Some makeup and lip balms contain some of the same sun-protective ingredients used in sunscreens. If they do not have at least SPF 15, be sure to use other forms of protection as well, such as sunscreen and a wide-brimmed hat.
The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays can lead to skin cancer, the most common type of cancer in the United States, as well as wrinkles and blotchy skin. UW Dermatologist Dr. Andrea Kalus kindly provided these 9 tips for minimizing sun damage:
- Sunscreen should be the last defense. The first defenses are covering up with clothing or a hat, seeking shade when possible, and avoiding peak hours of sun exposure.
- Brand does not matter when purchasing sunscreen. Brand name and generic or store brands all use the same ingredients in sunscreen.
- Purchase a broad spectrum sunscreen SPF 30 or higher. SPF ratings protect against UVB range UV rays and sunscreens with the added label of “broad spectrum” have protection against UVA also. Protecting yourself against both is important in preventing sunburns and skin cancer as well as wrinkles. SPF 15 blocks 94% of UVB rays (the cancer causing rays), SPF 30 blocks 97%, and SPF 45 blocks 98%. After SPF 45, the increases in blockage percentage are minimal.
- Apply sunscreen 15-20 minutes before going outside and reapply every 2 hours for the sunscreen to remain effective.
- No sunscreen is actually waterproof. Sunscreens labeled “sweat-proof” or “water-resistant” only last 40-80 minutes. If you are swimming or sweating, sunscreen should be reapplied more often.
- Sunscreen expires. Sunscreen is just expensive lotion if you are using it beyond its 3 year expiration date.
- 40% of UV rays break through the clouds, so sunscreen should really be worn daily.
- Pay special attention to the little ones. Sunscreens contain chemicals that may be absorbed through the skin and in babies under 6 months, regular use of sunscreen may not be great. However, a baby getting a sunburned is probably worse than applying sunscreen when really needed. It is best to protect babies with clothing, accessories, and shade as often as possible.
- Don’t forget the sneaky spots! The top 5 places people forget to apply sunscreen are behind the knees, on their feet, on top of their hands, behind and on their ears, and on the scalp.
Take it Easy – Your Body will Thank You
Whether it happens at work or on the golf course, overexertion continues to be a leading cause of injury over all age groups. It was the second leading reason that adults age 25-64 ended up in emergency departments in 2013, and the third leading cause for kids ages 10 and older, often from too-heavy , computers and gaming, and poor posture.
Overexertion causes 35% of all work-related injuries and is, by far, the largest contributor to workers’ compensation costs – more than $15 billion, or 25% of the total cost in 2012, according to Injury Facts 2016®. It also is the #1 reason for lost work days. More than 322,00 people missed work that year due to overexertion. Here are some injury statistics by industry for 2014:
· Construction – 19,070
· Manufacturing – 46,040
· Wholesale trade – 21,100
· Retail trade – 42,720
· Transportation and warehousing – 38,960
· Professional and business services – 23,410
· Education and health services – 68,720
· Government – 72,050
Over all age groups, whether work-related or off-the-job, hospitals treated 3,132,271 overexertion-related injuries in 2014, and the trend doesn’t seem to be going downward. What gives?
It’s Really About Ergonomics
Ergonomic injuries are disorders of the soft tissue, specifically of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage, blood vessels and spinal discs caused by:
· Repetitive motion
· Working in awkward positions
· Sitting or standing for prolonged period of time
· Using excessive force
· Vibration, resting on sharp corners or edges
· Temperature extremes
Whether you become injured on an assembly line or typing on a computer, playing video games or helping someone move, it’s important to know the signs. Ergonomic injury is cumulative. Symptoms can include everything from posture problems and intermittent discomfort, to tendonitis, chronic pain and disability.
Overexertion can be Prevented
Regular exercise, stretching and strength training to maintain a strong core all are beneficial in preventing injury. Following are some additional tips for work and home:
· Limit the amount of time you spend doing the same motion over and over
· Take frequent breaks from any sustained position every 20-30 minutes
· Report pain, swelling, numbness, tingling, tenderness, clicking or loss of strength to your doctor before it becomes a full-blown injury
Each year, over 700,000 men are diagnosed with cancer and nearly 300,000 die from the disease. During the course of a lifetime half of all men will get cancer at least once, and 1 in 3 women will get the disease. can strike anyone, at any age, but the majority of cases happen to people 55 and over.
The saddest part about all of this is that most of these cancers and deaths are preventable. At least one-third of cancer deaths are caused by , and another one-third may be caused by poor and/or lack of . The 2 keys to beating cancer are early detection and reducing risk.
The following are common types of cancers found in men. Browse through each type to find out information such as symptoms, treatment options and prevention tips for each condition/disease.
is the leading cancer for men in the US. It is followed by lung cancer and then colorectal cancer. The fourth most common cancer is race-dependent: bladder cancer for Caucasian men, cancer of the mouth and throat for African American men, kidney/renal cancer for American Indian/ Alaska Native males and Hispanic males and stomach cancer for Asian/Pacific Island men.
If any of the following are true, you are at risk of developing cancer. It is important that you start having conversations with your healthcare provider about your risk.
- You smoke (cigarettes, pipes, or cigars) or chew tobacco
- You drink more than two alcoholic drinks per day
- You have a family history of cancer
- You have had cancer in the past
- You are 55 or older
- You get little or no exercise
- You eat a high-fat, low-fiber diet
- You are African-American
You can’t detect cancers if you don’t know what to look for. Below are a number of symptoms that could be indicators. Many of them could be caused by other conditions, but you should notify your healthcare provider if you notice anything unusual or abnormal.
- Lumps that you can feel through the skin
- Sores that don’t heal
- Changes in the size, color, or texture of a wart or mole
- Blood in the urine, stool, or saliva
- A cough, sore throat, hoarseness, or trouble swallowing that won’t go away
- Persistent back ache
- Unexpected weight loss
- Unexplained pain
- Pressure or tenderness in the chest
- Unusual bleeding
- Chronic nausea or gas
- Fever that lasts more than a few days
Even with early detection and knowledge of the risk factors, there’s no way to guarantee that you’ll never get cancer. But there are a number of steps you can take that will go a long way toward minimizing your chances:
- . Smoking causes 90% of lung cancers and greatly increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, kidney, bladder, pancreas and esophagus.
- to two drinks a day maximum.
- . A little bit of exposure will stimulate your body to produce vitamin D, which researchers think may reduce the risk of a number of cancers. But too much can cause skin cancer. Between 10 am and 3 pm—the hottest part of the day—try to stay indoors as much as possible. When you do go out, always wear sunscreen with SPF (sunscreen protection factor) 25 or greater. If you don’t have sunscreen, wear a hat or stay in the shade as much as possible. Having fair skin or having had severe sunburn in childhood greatly increases the risk of developing skin cancer.
- with lots of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. High-fat, low-fiber diets are at least partly responsible for most colorectal cancers. They also increase the risk of pancreatic and bladder cancers.
- (such as hot dogs and luncheon meats). These foods are associated with increased risk of stomach cancer.
- (poly vinyl chloride), tar and creosote (a dark brown or black flammable tar deposited from wood smoke on chimney walls). These are linked with a number of cancers, including cancer of the liver and skin.
- . See your healthcare provider if you notice any significant changes.
- as . These tests are designed to detect certain types of cancer (such as colon, bladder, kidney, , ) in their earliest stages. Caught early, these cancers can be treated successfully.
- . Some recent research indicates that people who took aspirin 16+ times a month were 40% less likely to get cancer of the esophagus, stomach, rectum, or colon than those who didn’t take aspirin at all.
Sex is an important part of life. Cancer and its various treatments can have an impact on your sexual health, whether you are a man or a woman. These changes can affect people physically and , decreasing interest in sexual activity as well as self-confidence. Yet patients and healthcare providers often don’t talk about how cancer treatment will affect a person’s sex life and . Fears about erections can sometimes lead to problems. Instead of letting go and feeling excited, a man may be worried about how well he does and his fear of failure can make him fail. problems caused by and are more common in young healthy men.
Learn about the treatments you will be receiving and ask questions of your healthcare provider:
- When will it be OK to have sex?
- Are there any types of sex I should avoid?
- What safety measures do I need to take, and for how long?
- What birth control is best for me and how long should I use it?
- How might each treatment affect my sex life?
Remember that there is no right or wrong way to have sex. Sometimes couples feel cheated if both partners cannot reach orgasm through sex as they’ve always done. But during cancer treatment, there may be times when that kind of sex is not possible. Some couples believe that sex should happen on the spur of the moment, with no planning. But sometimes when you are dealing with a cancer-related symptom or treatment side effect, it is impossible for it to happen like it did in the past. It is important to have open and honest conversations with your partner throughout this time to make sure your feelings are expressed. If one person has a sex problem, it affects both of you, so making your partner part of finding the solution will bring you closer together.
. Certain operations can cause more sexual problems than others. An example is when a man has had pelvic organs removed (i.e. bladder, , rectum, etc) he may not regain full . Men who had successful erections prior to cancer surgery are far more likely to regain the success than men who previously had problems. Surgery may result in loss of arterial blood flow, potentially restricting blood flow to the penis or causing nerve damage.
. Radiation treatments that are directed to the lower abdomen cancers can cause erectile issues because of the damage to the vessels carrying blood to the penis. The potential of interior scar formation is likely as treated areas heal, and therefore blood vessel walls won’t be as elastic as before, preventing adequate blood rush creating a firm erection. Radiation may harm the nerves that control erection and some men may produce less post treatment. Testosterone levels may increase within 6 months after radiation, and we recommend speaking with your provider to see if further hormone therapy is beneficial. (Men with prostate cancer should not take testosterone, since it may make prostate cancer cells grow faster.)
. Many men undergoing chemotherapy treatment see no change in erectile function. However, erections and desire may temporarily drop immediately following chemo treatments. In some cases, treatment may be prescribed to regain desire and erections.
. In the case of metastasized prostate cancer, treatment may include balancing a man’s hormone levels. Hormone treatment or hormone therapy starves the cancer cells of and this helps slow the cancer’s growth. Blocking testosterone can be done by:
- Using drugs to keep the man from making testosterone
- Using drugs that block the body from using testosterone
- Removing a man’s testicles (called orchiectomy)
Decrease desire for sexual activity is a common problem man undergoing hormone treatment experience. Hormone treatment may also cause physical changes in appearance, such as losing muscle mass, weight gain, or increase in breast tissue. Discuss your concerns about side effects with your healthcare provider, because there may be ways to prevent or limit some of these effects.
Many problems men have after cancer treatment don’t typically last long, and as a man begins to feel more in control of his body, there will be an increase in self-confidence and sexual desire improves. In other cases, some cancer treatments may cause a life-long change, and it’s difficult to know what will happen. Keeping open communication with your healthcare providers will help to jointly find the cause of issues and seek treatment to fix them!
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is a general term that includes many different conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels. According to the , over 39 million American men (1 in 3) suffer from one or more of these conditions, and every year just under half a million of them die of cardiovascular disease (1 in 4 men)—that’s more than and combined. Approximately 392,000 men and 419,000 women die from cardiovascular disease each year. CVD is also a major cause of disability and decreases the quality of life for millions of people.
Heart disease is a term that may be used to describe any disorder of a person’s cardiovascular system which affects their heart’s ability to function. Other names for heart disease include: ‘ (CHD)’, ‘cardiovascular disease’, or, ‘coronary artery disease’. Heart disease causes congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, , ischemia, and sudden cardiac arrest. is the most common form of heart disease, and is the result of continued narrowing of a person’s blood vessels which supply both blood and oxygen to their heart.
Heart disease is the most common cause of death for men in the U.S. A healthy and lifestyle are the most common contributors to good cardiovascular health. Other conditions you may experience as you age include and . Modest changes to your diet can help to reduce your risk of developing these diseases.
Because CVD interferes with your heart’s ability to pump blood through your body, it can keep you from enjoying all of your days normal activities; working, time with friends and family, playing with your children or grandchildren, climbing stairs and even having sex.
Even if you don’t have cardiovascular disease now, you may have one or more habits or conditions that could increase the chance that you’ll develop it.
Look at the list of statements below. If any of them are true about you, make an appointment to see your healthcare provider today. Just one “Yes” answer means you are at risk. Two “Yes” answers quadruples your risk. Three “Yes” answers increases your risk by 10 times:
- I’m 45 or older. (Your risk of developing cardiovascular disease doubles each decade.)
- An immediate family member (father, mother, brother, sister) was diagnosed with or some other kind of heart condition before age 55.
- I’m African American.
- I get little or no exercise.
- I’m overweight or .
- I eat a lot of salty foods and/or I add salt to what I’m eating.
- My is high. .
- I smoke. (If you do, you are two to four times more likely to develop heart disease than a nonsmoker.)
- I have .
- I use recreational drugs, such as cocaine.
- I’m under a lot of (at work and/or at home).
- I drink more than two alcoholic drinks every day.
- I drink a lot of coffee (not decaf) or other caffeinated beverages.
- I have . (More than 80% of people with diabetes die of some kind of CVD.)
- I’m taking prescription medications that affect blood pressure.
This includes Ritalin (drugs for Attention Deficit Disorder), steroids, migraine medications, any over-the-counter drugs that contain the ingredient pseudoephedrine, and any medication that contains stimulants such as caffeine.
Many people consider cardiovascular disease as a “man’s disease,” but just as many women as men die from it each year. In fact, it’s the number one killer of women in the United States and is a leading cause of disability. Like men, a woman’s risk of getting heart disease increases as she gets older— especially after menopause. But it’s important to keep in mind that women of any age can get heart disease.
Both males and females often have the “classic” symptoms: tightness in the chest, arm pain, and shortness of breath, women are more likely to also complain of nausea, fatigue, indigestion, cold sweats, and dizziness. If your partner has any signs of a heart attack, make sure you call 9-1-1 right away—do not wait for her to do it on her own.
According to an American Heart Association survey, only about half of women indicated they would call 9-1-1 if they thought they were having a heart attack. If you wait too long to call for help, by the time you reach the hospital and have the necessary tests, it may be too late for treatment to prevent permanent heart damage. Prevention is important because two-thirds of women who have a heart attack never fully recover. The risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women are the same as they are for men; age, obesity, smoking, excessive alcohol intake, lack of physical activity, high blood pressure, and diabetes. The best way for your partner to prevent cardiovascular diseases is by practicing healthy lifestyle habits. When it comes to , men and women have slightly different symptoms.
A woman suffering a stroke may experience:
- Sudden face and limb pain
- Sudden hiccups
- Sudden nausea
- Sudden general weakness
- Sudden chest pain
- Sudden shortness of breath
- Sudden palpitations
There could be some implications with certain cardiovascular drugs used to treat heart conditions. Diuretics and beta-blockers, have been known to cause (ED) in men. This should not be a concern if your healthcare providers are all working together to get you the best treatment combinations.
- Eat at least three ounces of whole grain cereals such as whole wheat, oats and brown rice per day. Whole grains provide abundant amounts of antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and fiber, which are .
- Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. They are rich in antioxidants and vitamins, which reduce the risk of developing and heart diseases.
- Limit your sodium intake to 2300 mg/day. Too much sodium can cause high blood pressure.
- Use less oil, margarine, mayonnaise and salad dressings.
- When using oils choose olive, canola or nut which contain mono-unsaturated fats. Avoid saturated fats such as bacon fat, cream cheese, lard, coconut oil or chocolate.
- Low-fat or reduced fat dairy products will help to reduce your levels. Too much cholesterol can lead to heart disease.
- When snacking, choose pretzels, popcorn or rice cakes instead of cookies, chips and cakes.
Ways to Be Active
The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends 30 minutes of physical activity a day for adults, 60 minutes for children, at least five days a week. Sound daunting? It’s much easier than you think, regardless of your current activity level. There are plenty of ways to get moving and some may even surprise you! It’s time to be active, get healthy, and have some fun!
Being active doesn’t require joining a gym. Look for ways to increase your heart rate during your daily routine. Walk or cycle instead of taking the car or bus, or you can choose the stairs over the escalator or elevator. Try these ways to be active and start working towards your fitness goals to jumpstart or maintain a healthy lifestyle.
There are many health benefits to being active for people of all ages, backgrounds and abilities, but you should consult your physician before starting a new activity program. If you haven’t been active in a while, start slowly and build up. Do what you can; some physical activity is better than none.
Different Types of Physical Activity
Aerobic activities can range from 60-85% of your maximum heart rate.
- Aerobic activities make you breathe harder and your heart beat faster. Aerobic activities can be moderate or vigorous in their intensity levels, and range from 60-85% of your maximum heart rate. A general guide to use: For moderate activities you can talk, but you can’t sing. With vigorous activities, you can only say a few words without stopping to catch your breath.
- Muscle-strengthening activities make your muscles stronger.
- Bone-strengthening activities make your bones stronger and are especially important for children and adolescents, as well as older adults.
- Balance and stretching activities enhance physical stability and flexibility, which reduce the risk of injuries.
Add Extra Steps to Your Day
- Walk the dog with the whole family.
- Instead of calling friends, take a walk together to catch up.
- Park your car as far away as possible so you have to walk a longer distance from your destination. Even better, walk or cycle to run errands in your community.
- Walk up and down the field while watching your child(ren) play sports.
- Get off the bus or subway one stop early and walk the rest of the way.
- Replace a coffee break with an outdoor walk—or take the coffee with you on your walk.
- Walk the golf course instead of using a cart.
- Choose the stairs instead of the elevator or escalator.
Keep Moving at Home & In the Community
Keep a list of quick activities, like squats or stretches, near the remote so that you can be active during commercial breaks.
- Wash the car.
- Shovel snow, rake leaves, or do yard work.
- Plant and care for a vegetable garden (then cook the vegetables for healthy meals).
- Find your inner child—build a snowman or rake the leaves then jump in your piles.
- Start your day with a morning stretch or end your day with calming yoga.
- Sign up for dance lessons with a friend.
- Experience the Great Outdoors and go for a hike or bike ride.
- Grab a basketball or football for a quick pick-up game at a local park.
- Join a community sports team or league, like soccer, rugby, or softball.
- Participate in a local road race.
- Go swimming at your local recreation center.
Staying Active for Individuals with Disabilities
- Children and adults with disabilities can gain numerous mental and physical benefits from being physically active on a regular basis including: reduced risk of chronic and secondary conditions, improved self-esteem and greater social interaction.
- Keep in mind that individuals with disabilities are just as capable and worthy of being active as someone without a disability and the activity does not have to be strenuous to provide positive benefits.
- Look for opportunities to be active in inclusive programs that are already in place at your local community and recreation centers, health and fitness facilities, public agencies and park departments, or sports clubs.
- Having fun while being active is the key! Find activities that you enjoy and include your friends and family in the action.
- Track your progress and earn recognition for being physically active by starting to earn your PALA+!
- Always consult your personal doctor before beginning any physical activity or exercise program.
Know the signs of heat-related illness and the ways to respond to it:
- HEAT CRAMPS
- Signs: Muscle pains or spasms in the stomach, arms, or legs
- Actions: Go to a cooler location. Remove excess clothing. Take sips of cool sports drinks with salt and sugar. Get medical help if cramps last more than an hour.
- HEAT EXHAUSTION
- Signs: Heavy sweating, paleness, muscle cramps, tiredness, weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea or vomiting, or fainting
- Actions: Go to an air-conditioned place and lie down. Loosen or remove clothing. Take a cool bath. Take sips of cool sports drinks with salt and sugar. Get medical help if symptoms get worse or last more than an hour.
- HEAT STROKE
- Signs: Extremely high body temperature (above 103 degrees) taken orally; red, hot, and dry skin with no sweat; rapid, strong pulse; dizziness; confusion; or unconsciousness
- Actions: Call 911 or get the person to a hospital immediately. Cool down with whatever methods are available until medical help arrives.
- The United States Department of Health and Human Services and the World Health Organization’s International Agency of Research on Cancer panel have declared ultraviolet radiation from the sun and artificial sources, such as tanning beds and sun lamps, to be a known carcinogen (cancer-causing substance).9
- Research indicates that UV light from the sun and tanning beds can both cause melanoma and increase the risk of a benign mole progressing to melanoma.
- Indoor tanning equipment, which includes all artificial light sources, including beds, lamps, bulbs, booths, etc., emits UVA and UVB radiation. The amount of the radiation produced during indoor tanning is similar to that of the sun, and in some cases might be stronger.
- Evidence from multiple studies has shown that exposure to UV radiation from indoor tanning devices is associated with an increased risk of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
- Researchers estimate that indoor tanning may cause upwards of 400,000 cases of skin cancer in the U.S. each year.
- Higher melanoma rates among young females compared to young males may be due in part to widespread use of indoor tanning among females
- Using indoor tanning beds before age 35 can increase your risk of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, by 59 percent; the risk increases with each use.
- Women younger than 30 are six times more likely to develop melanoma if they tan indoors.
- Research demonstrates that even people who do not burn after indoor tanning or sun exposure are at an increased risk of melanoma if they tan indoors.
- Even one indoor tanning session can increase users’ risk of developing melanoma by 20 percent, squamous cell carcinoma by 67 percent and basal cell carcinoma by 29 percent.
- Indoor tanning before age 24 increases one’s risk of developing basal cell carcinoma by age 50.
- The estimated cost of treating skin cancers attributable to indoor tanning is $343.1 million a year, leading to a total economic loss of $127.3 billion over the lifetime of those affected.
- Studies have demonstrated that exposure to UV radiation during indoor tanning damages the DNA in the skin cells. Excessive exposure to UV radiation during indoor tanning can lead to premature skin aging, immune suppression, and eye damage, including cataracts and ocular melanoma.
- A recent investigation estimated that 3,234 injuries related to indoor tanning — including burns, loss of consciousness and eye injuries — were treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments every year from 2003 to 2012.
- In addition to the above-mentioned risks, frequent, intentional exposure to UV light may lead to tanning addiction.
- Research indicates that more than one-fifth of Caucasian women age 18-30 exhibit indoor tanning dependence.
- Indoor tanning beds/lamps should be avoided and should not be used to obtain vitamin D because UV radiation from indoor tanning is a risk factor for skin cancer. Vitamin D can be obtained by eating a healthy diet and by taking oral supplements.
You can detect skin cancer early by following dermatologists’ tips for checking your skin. You can download the AAD’s body mole map to document your self-examination.
If you notice a spot that is different from others, or that changes, itches or bleeds, you should make an appointment to see a dermatologist.
|1. Examine your body front and back in the mirror, then look at the right and left sides with your arms raised.|
|2. Bend elbows and look carefully at forearms, underarms, and palms.|
|3. Look at the backs of your legs and feet, the spaces between your toes, and the soles of your feet.|
|4. Examine the back of your neck and scalp with a hand mirror. Part hair for a closer look.|
|5. Finally, check your back and buttocks with a hand mirror.|